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Period: The 19th Century

Throughout the 19th century in Europe, North America, and parts of the British Empire, ideas about individual liberty, limited constitutional government, and free market were put into practice with varying degrees of success. The movement which promoted these ideas was called ’classical liberalism’. The major historical events and intellectual movements of that time, which influenced the development of liberty, include the following:

  • the creation of constitutional limits on the power of governernments, the introduction of the rule of law, and electoral reforms in most Western European states
  • the abolition of serfdom within Europe and slavery in the European colonies
  • the introduction of free trade, especially in Britain with the Anti-Corn Law League which was the model for similar reforms elsewhere
  • the emergence of the classical school of economic thought
  • the gradual weakening of classical liberalism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries with the return of economic protectionism, the expansion of European imperialism, and ultimately a devastating war between the major European powers

310 People in this Group:

sort name ↑ name   birth   death  
Abbott Thomas Kingsmill Abbott 1829 1913
Acton J John Emerich Edward Dalberg, Lord Acton 1834 1902
Adams Charles Charles Francis Adams 1807 1886
Adams H Henry Adams 1838 1918
Adams JQ John Quincy Adams 1767 1848
Alford Rev. B.H. Alford ? ?
Arnold T Thomas Arnold 1823 1900
Ashley Sir William James Ashley 1860 1927
Ashton R Robert Ashton ?
Atkinson E Edward Atkinson 1827 1905
Aveling Edward Aveling 1851 1898
Bacon L Leonard Woolsey Bacon 1830 1907
Bagehot Walter Bagehot 1826 1877
Baker G George Baker 1781 1851
Barham F Francis Barham 1808 1871
Bastable Charles F. Bastable 1855 1945
Bastiat Frédéric Bastiat 1801 1850
Bax Ernest Belfort Bax 1854 1926
Beauchamp Gordon F.W. Beauchamp Gordon ? ?
Beaumont Gustave de Beaumont 1802 1866
Beeching H Henry Charles Beeching 1859 1919
Beethoven L Ludwig van Beethoven 1770 1827
Bentham Jeremy Bentham 1748 1832
Benton Thomas Hart Benton 1782 1858
Betham-Edwards Mathilda Betham-Edwards 1836 1919
Beveridge H Henry Beveridge 1799 1863
Biddle Clement C. Biddle 1784 1855
Bigelow J John Bigelow 1817 1911
Blackie J John Stuart Blackie 1809 1895
Böhm-Bawerk Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk 1851 1914
Bonnefon P Paul Bonnefon 1861 1922
Bonner J John Bonner 1828 1899
Borght R Richard van der Borght 1861 1926
Bowring J John Bowring 1792 1872
Boyesen H Hjalmar Hjorth Boyesen 1848 1895
Boysen Hjalmar H. Boysen 1848 1895
Bright John Bright 1811 1889
Brough William Brough 1826 1870
Bryant William Cullen Bryant 1794 1878
Bryce James Viscount James Bryce 1838 1922
Buchheim Carl Adolph Buchheim 1828 1900
Bullen A Arthur Henry Bullen 1857 1920
Burckhardt Jacob Burckhardt 1818 1897
Burd L Laurence Arthur Burd ?
Bury J John Bagnell Bury 1861 1927
Cairnes John Elliot Cairnes 1823 1875
Calderwood Rev. Henry Calderwood 1830 1897
Calhoun John C. Calhoun 1782 1850
Campbell A A.C. Campbell ?
Carus P Paul Carus 1852 1919
Chadwick E Sir Edwin Chadwick 1800 1890
Chapman M Maria Weston Chapman 1806 1885
Chevalier M Michel Chevalier 1806 1879
Chitty J Joseph Chitty 1776 1841
Clausewitz C Carl von Clausewitz 1780 1831
Clay Henry Clay 1777 1852
Clayton John M. Clayton 1796 1856
Cleveland Rose Elizabeth Cleveland 1846 1918
Cleveland R Rose Elizabeth Cleveland 1846 1918
Clough A A.H. Clough 1819 1861
Cobbett W William Cobbett 1763 1835
Cobden Richard Cobden 1804 1865
Constant Benjamin Constant 1767 1830
Conway Moncure Daniel Conway 1832 1907
Coulthard Joseph Coulthard ?
Coxe A A. Cleveland Coxe 1818 1896
Coxe J John Redman Coxe 1773 1864
Craig W William James Craig 1843 1906
Cust H Henry Cust 1861 1917
Darwin C Charles Darwin 1809 1882
Dasent G Sir George Webbe Dasent 1817 1896
Daumier H Honoré Daumier 1808 1879
Deane Sidney Norton Deane ? ?
Destutt de Tracy Antoine Louis Claude, Comte Destutt de Tracy 1754 1836
Detmold C Christian Detmold 1810 1887
Devey J Joseph Devey ?
Dicey A Albert Venn Dicey 1835 1922
Dods M Reverend Marcus Dods 1834 1909
Donaldson J Sir James Donaldson 1831 1915
Donisthorpe Wordsworth Donisthorpe 1847
Douglass F Frederick Douglass 1817 1895
Durand J John Durand 1822 1908
Dutt R Romesh C. Dutt 1848 1909
Dymes T Thomas J. Dymes ?
Editor Editor of the Journal of Commerce and Commercial Bulletin ?
Eliot C Chales W. Eliot 1834 1926
Elliot J Jonathan Elliot 1784 1846
Elwes Robert Harvey Monro Elwes 1853
Emerson Ralph Waldo Emerson 1803 1882
Engels F Friedrich Engels 1820 1895
Essars P Pierre des Essars ? 1906
Fairfield Charles Fairfield ? ?
Fang W Wu Ting Fang 1842 1922
Faucher Leon Faucher 1804 1854
Favaro A Antonio Favaro 1847 1922
Firth C Charles Harding Firth 1857 1936
Fischer Johann Johann Georg Fischer 1816 1897
Fleming William F. Fleming ?
Ford P Paul Leicester Ford 1865 1902
Ford W Worthington Chauncey Ford 1868 1941
Foulke W William Dudley Foulke 1848 1935
Friedlaender Michael Friedlaender 1833 1910
Gallatin Albert Gallatin 1761 1849
Gardiner S Samuel Rawson Gardiner 1829 1902
Gentz F Friedrich von Gentz 1764 1832
George Henry George 1839 1897
Ghislanzoni A Antonio Ghislanzoni 1824 1893
Gierke O Otto von Gierke 1841 1921
Giles J Rev. J.A. Giles 1808 1884
Goethe J Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 1749 1832
Goodwin W William W. Goodwin 1831 1912
Greenidge A Abel Hendy Jones Greenidge 1865 1906
Griswold R Rufus Wilmot Griswold 1815 1857
Guillaumin G Gilbert-Urbain Guillaumin 1801 1864
Guizot François Guizot 1787 1874
Guyot Yves Guyot 1843 1928
Hall H H.S. Hall ?
Hamilton M Mary Agnes Hamilton 1883
Hamilton W Sir William Hamilton 1788 1856
Harper R Robert Francis Harper 1846 1914
Hastie William Hastie 1842 1903
Hayne Robert Y Hayne 1791 1839
Hazlett William William Carew Hazlett 1834 1913
Hazlitt W William Hazlitt 1811 1893
Heath T Sir Thomas Little Heath 1861 1940
Herbert Auberon Herbert 1838 1906
Higginson T Thomas Wentworth Higginson 1823 1911
Hill D David Jayne Hill 1850 1932
Hill G George Birkbeck Norman Hill 1835 1903
Hodgskin Thomas Hodgskin 1787 1869
Homes H Henry A. Homes 1812 1887
Horn A Antoine E. Horn ?
Howell George Howell 1833 1910
Hoxie Robert Franklin Hoxie 1868 1916
Hugo V Victor Hugo 1802 1885
Hull C Charles Henry Hull 1864
Humboldt Wilhelm von Humboldt 1767 1835
Hunt G Gaillard Hunt 1862 1924
Hurley Edmund G. Hurley 1848 ?
Ingraham E Edward Duncan Ingraham 1793 1854
Ingram J John Kells Ingram 1823 1907
Jackson S Samuel Macauley Jackson 1851 1912
Jebb Sir Richard C. Jebb 1841 1905
Jellinek Georg Jellinek 1851 1911
Jensen A Adolph Jensen 1866
Jernigan T Thomas R. Jernigan ?
Jevons Harriet Harriet A. Jevons ?
Jevons William William Stanley Jevons 1835 1882
Johns C Rev. Claude Hermann Walter Johns 1857 1920
Johnson E Rev. E. Johnson ?
Johnston H Henry P. Johnston 1842 1923
Jowett Benjamin Jowett 1817 1893
Keble J John Keble 1792 1866
Khayr al-Din Khayr al-Din (Khérédine) 1820 1890
Knight G George Wells Knight 1858 1932
Kopetzky O O. Kopetzky ?
Laing S Samuel Laing 1780 1868
Lalor John Joseph Lalor ? 1899
Langdon Courtney Langdon 1861 1924
Laughlin J. Laurence Laughlin 1850 1933
Lecky William Edward Hartpole Lecky 1838 1903
Lecky E Elizabeth Lecky ?
Legge J James Legge 1815 1897
Leggett William Leggett 1801 1839
Leigh Oliver Herbrand Gordon Leigh ?
Levy Joseph Hiam Levy 1838 1913
Levy J Joseph Hiam Levy 1838 1913
Lieber F Francis Lieber 1798 1872
List Friedrich List 1789 1846
Livingston Edward Livingston 1764 1836
Llloyd Sampson S. Lloyd ?
Lobb J John Lobb 1840 1921
Lodge H Henry Cabot Lodge 1850 1924
Longfield M Mountifort Longfield 1802 1884
Macaulay Thomas Babington, Lord Macaulay 1800 1859
Macdonell A Arthur Anthony Macdonell 1854 1930
Mackay Charles Charles Mackay 1814 1889
Mackay Thomas Thomas Mackay 1849 1912
Mackintosh Sir James Mackintosh 1765 1832
Mackintosh R Robert James Mackintosh ?
MacLeod H Henry Dunning MacLeod 1821 1902
Maine Sir Henry Sumner Maine 1822 1888
Maitland Frederic William Maitland 1850 1906
Mallet Louis Sir Louis Mallet 1823 1890
Malthus Thomas Robert Malthus 1766 1823
Marcet Jane Haldimand Marcet 1769 1858
Marshall Alfred Alfred Marshall 1842 1924
Marshall John John Marshall 1755 1835
Martineau Harriet Martineau 1802 1876
Marx Karl Marx 1818 1883
Mattos A Alexander Teixeira de Mattos 1865 1921
McCabe Joseph McCabe 1867 1955
McCulloch J John Ramsay McCulloch 1789 1864
Menger Carl Menger 1840 1921
Menzies A Allan Menzies 1845 1916
Mill James James Mill 1773 1836
Mill John John Stuart Mill 1806 1873
Millar Frederick Frederick Millar ? ?
Molesworth W Sir William Molesworth 1810 1855
Molinari Gustave de Molinari 1819 1912
Montemartini G Giovanni Montemartini 1867 1913
Moore S Samuel Moore ?
Morley John Morley 1838 1923
Morris A Anne Cary Morris ?
Morris W William Morris 1834 1896
Müller M Friedrich Max Müller 1823 1900
Napoleon Napoléon Bonaparte 1769 1821
Newcomb Simon Newcomb 1835 1909
Nicholson Joseph Shield Nicholson 1850 1927
Norton C Charles Eliot Norton 1827 1908
O’Brien M.D. O’Brien ? ?
Owen J John Owen ? 1867
Paillottet, P Prosper Paillottet 1804 1878
Passy Frédéric Passy 1822 1912
Paul C Charles Kegan Paul 1828 1902
Paul H Herbert W. Paul 1853 1935
Paulton W W. Paulton ?
Payne Edward John Payne 1844 1904
Peabody A Andrew P. Peabody 1811 1893
Peters F F.H. Peters ?
Pick B Bernhard Pick 1842 1917
Pollock F Sir Frederick Pollock 1845 1937
Poste Edward Poste 1823 1902
Pratt Hodgson Pratt 1824 1907
Pringle W Rev. William Pringle ?
Prinsep Charles Robert Prinsep 1789 1864
Proctor J Father John Proctor ?
Rae John Rae 1845 1915
Raffalovich Arthur Raffalovich 1853 1921
Raguet C Condy Raguet 1784 1842
Rawlinson G George Rawlinson 1812 1902
Ricahrdson E Ernest Cushing Richardson 1860 1939
Ricardo David Ricardo 1772 1823
Richter Eugen Richter 1838 1906
Richter J John Richter ?
Rickaby J Joseph Rickaby, S.J. 1845 1932
Roberts A Alexander Roberts 1826 1901
Robertson Edward Edward Stanley Robertson ?
Rogers James E. Thorold Rogers 1823 1890
Rolleston T T.W. Rolleston 1857 1920
Rowan John Rowan 1773 1843
Say Jean Baptiste Say 1767 1832
Schaff P Philip Schaff 1819 1893
Scoble A Andrew R. Scoble ?
Sedgwick T Theodore Sedgwick, Jr. 1811 1859
Semple J. W. Semple ?
Senior Nassau William Senior 1790 1864
Sharswood G George Sharswood 1810 1883
Shaw George George Bernard Shaw 1856 1950
Shaw J Reverend J.F. Shaw ?
Shelley Mary Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley 1797 1851
Shelley Percy Percy Bysshe Shelley 1792 1822
Shepherd R Richard Herne Shepherd 1842 1895
Shuckburgh E Evelyn Shirley Shuckburgh 1843 1906
Simpson Mary Mary Charlotte Mair Simpson ?
Sismondi J Jean Charles Léonard Simonde de Sismondi 1773 1842
Skeat W Walter W. Skeat 1835 1912
Smart William A. Smart 1853 1914
Smeaton O Oliphant Smeaton 1856 1914
Smiles S Samuel Smiles 1812 1904
Smith Bruce Bruce Smith 1851 1937
Smith G Goldwin Smith 1823 1910
Smith William William Smith 1762 1840
Soyeda J Juichi Soyeda ?
Spencer Herbert Herbert Spencer 1820 1903
Spooner L Lysander Spooner 1808 1887
Staël Germaine de Staël 1766 1817
Stephen James Fitzjames Stephen 1829 1894
Stevens F F.H. Stevens ?
Sumner William Graham Sumner 1840 1910
Taine Hippolyte Taine 1828 1893
Taylor Harriet Taylor 1807 1858
Taylor J John Taylor 1753 1824
Taylor W William Cooke Taylor 1800 1849
Thatcher O Oliver J. Thatcher 1857 1937
Thierry A Augustin Thierry 1795 1856
Thornton H Henry Thornton 1760 1815
Tiedeman C Christopher G. Tiedeman 1857 1903
Tocqueville Alexis de Tocqueville 1805 1859
Townsend J John P. Townsend ?
Tucker St. George Tucker 1752 1827
Untermann Ernest Untermann ?
Vaughan Charles Charles Edwyn Vaughan 1854 1922
Vaughan R Rev. Robert Vaughan 1795 1868
Veblen Thorstein Veblen 1857 1929
Veitch J John Veitch 1829 1894
Verdi G Giuseppe Verdi 1813 1901
Vincent Edmund Vincent ? ?
Wace Henry Wace 1836 1924
Wade John John Wade 1788 1875
Walker B Byron Edmund Walker 1848 1924
Walker Francis Amasa Francis Amasa Walker 1840 1897
Walker R. Robert John Walker 1801 1869
Warner P P. H. Lee Warner ?
Webster D Daniel Webster 1782 1852
Welby Reginald Earle Welby, Lord Welby 1832 1915
Wells F Rev. Francis B. Wells 1810 1888
Whately Richard Whately 1787 1863
Wherry E Rev. Elwood Morris Wherry 1843 1927
White A Andrew D. White 1832 1918
Wicksell Knut Wicksell 1851 1926
Wieser F Friedrich von Wieser 1851 1926
Wilshire Henry Gaylord Wilshire 1861 1927
Wilson Woodrow Woodrow Wilson 1856 1924
Wirth M Max Wirth 1822 1900
Wolowski Louis Wolowski 1810 1876
Woolsey T Theodore D. Woolsey 1801 1889
Wright Henry Henry Wright ?
Wyatt A Alfred John Wyatt 1858
Yonge C Charles Duke Yonge 1812 1891