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Period: The 20th Century and Beyond

The classical liberal and free market tradition suffered a terrible setback in the 20th century with the World Wars, the rise of fascism and communism, and the modern welfare state. Yet it also experienced a veritable renaissance in the last quarter of the century. The major historical events and intellectual movements of that time, which influenced the development of liberty, include the following:

  • the emergence of total warfare in WW1 and WW2 which required massive regulation of the economy, high taxation and government borrowing, the conscription of labor both in the factories and on the battlefield, massive loss of life and destruction of property, and the curtailment of individual liberty
  • the communist revolutions in Russia (1917) and China (1949) which arose out of the chaos of war and hyper-inflation and which led to attempts to centrally plan the economy and mass killings of all who opposed the regime
  • the post-WW2 efforts to create a welfare state in Europe and the US with the resulting increases in economic regulation and taxation
  • the rediscovery of classical liberal thought in Britain and the US after WW2 with the work of Hayek, Mises and Friedman among many others
  • the collapse of communism iin 1989

542 People in this Group:

sort name ↑ name   birth   death  
Acton HB H.B. Acton 1908 1974
Ahnert T Thomas Ahnert ?
Ahnert T Thomas Ahnert ?
Aiyar K K. Narayanasvami Aiyar ?
Alchian Armen A. Alchian 1914
Ali Maulvi Muhammed Ali ? ?
Ali S Syed Nawab Ali ?
Allen W William B. Allen 1944
Allison William Talbot Allison ?
Alm Richard Alm ?
Alvis John Alvis ? ?
Anderson Terry L. Anderson ?
Anderson R Rasmus B. Anderson 1846 1936
Andrews C Charles M. Andrews 1863 1943
Appleby J Joyce Oldham Appleby ?
Arberry A Arthur J. Arberry 1905 1969
Armitage David Armitage 1965 ?
Aslund Anders Aslund ?
Ayau Manuel Ayau 1925 2010
Bailey C Cyril Bailey 1871 1957
Baker Harriet Harriet Franc Baker 1875
Banning Lance Banning 1942 2006
Bannister Robert C. Bannister ? ?
Barod Mohammad Jamil-Ub-Behman Barod ?
Barrington R Mrs. Russell Barrington ? 1933
Barry Norman P. Barry ? ?
Barzun Jacques Barzun 1907 ?
Batson Harold E. Batson 1906
Bauer Lord Peter Thomas Bauer 1915 2003
Baumol William J. Baumol ?
Beck James M. Beck ?
Becker Carl Carl Lotus Becker 1873 1945
Becker G Gary S. Becker 1930 ?
Behme T Thomas Behme ?
Belz H Herman Belz ?
Benjamin D Daniel K. Benjamin ?
Berger Raoul Berger 1901 ?
Bergin Paul Bergin ?
Bernard J J.H. Bernard 1860 1927
Bhagwati Jagdish Bhagwati ?
Bittlingmayer George Bittlingmayer ?
Blackman Sue Ann Batey Blackman ?
Bladen Vincent Wheeler Bladen ?
Blinder Alan S. Blinder ?
Block Walter Block ?
Blundell J John Blundell ?
Boettke Peter J. Boettke 1960
Bongie Laurence L. Bongie ?
Bordo Michael D. Bordo ?
Borjas George J. Borjas ?
Boskin Michael J. Boskin ?
Bottum J Joseph Bottum ?
Bouchier E Edmund Spencer Bouchier 1876
Boudreaux Donald J. Boudreaux ?
Boyers W. Hayden Boyers ?
Boynton H Henry W. Boynton 1869 1947
Brady Alexander Brady 1896
Brennan Geoffrey Brennan 1944
Broadie A Alexander Broadie ?
Brooke T C.F. Tucker Brooke 1883 1946
Brooks Francis Brooks 1861 1936
Brooks C Christopher W. Brooks ?
Brown H Harry G. Brown 1880
Brown Pamela Pamela J. Brown ? ?
Bryce J J.C. Bryce ?
Buchanan James M. Buchanan 1919 2013
Budge Sir Ernest Alfred Wallis Budge 1857 1934
Cadoux John Cecil Cadoux 1883 1947
Cain S Seymour Cain 1914
Cairns John C. Cairns 1924
Caldwell J John Caldwell ?
Campbell Roy Harold Campbell ?
Canavan Francis Canavan 1917 ?
Cannan Edwin Cannan 1861 1935
Capaldi N Nicholas Capaldi ?
Caplan Bryan Caplan ?
Carey George W. Carey 1933 ?
Carney Frederick S. Carney ? ?
Carrese P Paul Carrese ?
Chamberlin W William Henry Chamberlin 1897 1969
Champion J Justin Champion ?
Chodorov F Frank Chodorov 1887 1966
Christianson P Paul Christianson 1937
Churton Annette Churton ?
Clark Evert Evert Mordecai Clark 1879
Clark Henry Henry C. Clark ?
Clark John John Bates Clark 1847 1938
Clarke W William Kemp Lowther Clarke 1879
Clay A Albert T. Clay 1866 1925
Coase Ronald H. Coase 1910 ?
Cohen Lester H. Cohen 1944 ?
Colbourn Trevor Colbourn ? ?
Cole G G.D.H. Cole 1889 1959
Coll A Alberto R. Coll ?
Collini Stefan Collini 1947
Committee Committee of the Association of American Law Schools ?
Cornuelle Richard Cornuelle 1927 2011
Coursey Don Coursey ?
Cowen Tyler Cowen ?
Cox Braden Cox ?
Cox W. Michael Cox ?
Craiutu Aurelian Craiutu ?
Crandall Robert W. Crandall ?
Crew H Henry Crew 1859 1953
Davids Caroline A.F. Rhys Davids 1857 1942
Dawson M Miles Menander Dawson 1863 1942
Demuth C Christopher Demuth ?
Den Uyl Douglas Den Uyl ? ?
Dennis W William C. Dennis ?
Dick Andrew R. Dick ?
Dixit Avinash Dixit ?
Dobb Maurice Herbert Dobb 1900 1976
Doenecke Justus D. Doenecke ? ?
Dolan Edwin G. Dolan ?
Dolgopolov Stanislav Dolgopolov ?
Doren Peter Van Doren ?
Ebeling R Richard Ebeling ?
Eheberg K Karl Theodor Eheberg 1855 1941
Ehrbar Al Ehrbar ?
Elazar Daniel J. Elazar ? ?
Elliott Kimberly Ann Elliott ?
Eltis S Shelagh Eltis 1937
Eltis W Walter Eltis 1933
Ely Bert Ely ?
Ely R Richard T. Ely 1854 1943
Epstein R Richard A. Epstein ?
Erickson E Stephen Erickson ?
Erler E Edward J. Erler ?
Evans M. Stanton Evans 1934 ?
Farrand M Max Farrand 1869 1945
Fathers of the English Dominican Province Fathers of the English Dominican Province ?
Faulkner R Robert Faulkner ?
Fetter Frank A. Fetter 1863 1949
Feulner E Ed Feulner ?
Field Alexander J. Field ?
Figgis John Neville Figgis 1866 1919
Filipiuk Marion Filipiuk ?
Fine Leslie R. Fine ?
Fisher H Herbert Albert Laurens Fisher 1865 1940
Fisher Irving Irving Fisher 1867 1947
Foley J John P. Foley ?
Foner Eric Foner ? ?
Foulke William Dudley Foulke 1848 1935
Foxley B Barbara Foxley ?
Franco P Paul Franco ?
Frankel Jeffrey A. Frankel ?
Friedman Milton Friedman 1912 2007
Friedman David D. Friedman ?
Frisch M Morton J. Frisch ?
Frohnen Bruce Frohnen ? ?
Garrett Aaron Garrett ?
Garrison M Maynard Garrison ?
Gitterman John Milton Gitterman ?
Glaeser E Edward L. Glaeser ?
Goddard Arthur Goddard ?
Goldie M Mark Goldie ?
Goldin Claudia Goldin ?
Goodman John C. Goodman ?
Goodrich PF Pierre F. Goodrich 1894 1973
Gordon David David Gordon ? ?
Gorman Linda Gorman ?
Graham J Colonel James John Graham ?
Grampp W William Dyer Grampp 1914
Gray John N. Gray 1948 ?
Greaaves P Percy L. Greaves, Jr. 1906 1984
Greaves Bettina Bien Greaves ?
Greene Robert A. Greene ? ?
Grier Kevin Grier ?
Grinder Walter E. Grinder ?
Grunert F Frank Grunert ?
Guenin J Jacques de Guenin ?
Gwartney James D. Gwartney ?
Hadow William Henry Hadow 1859 1937
Hall K Kermit L. Hall 1944 2006
Hall M Mark David Hall 1966
Hamburger Joseph Hamburger 1922 1997
Hamilton C Charles H. Hamilton 1946
Hamowy R Ronald Hamowy ?
Hanley T Thomas R. Hanley 1900
Hanson P Philip Hanson ?
Harberger Arnold C. Harberger ?
Hardin Garrett Hardin ?
Haring John Haring ?
Harper F.A. Floyd Arthur Harper 1905 1973
Harris Lord Ralph Harris ? ?
Harris J James A. Harris ?
Hart D David M. Hart 1957
Hartwell Ronald Max Hartwell 1921 2009
Haskins C Charles H. Haskins 1870 1937
Hassett Kevin Hassett ?
Hayek Friedrich August von Hayek 1899 1992
Hazlett Thomas W. Hazlett ?
Hazlitt Henry Henry Hazlitt 1894
Heckscher Eli F. Heckscher 1879 1952
Heilbroner Robert Heilbroner 1919 2005
Henderson Christine Christine Dunn Henderson 1967 ?
Henderson D David R. Henderson ?
Henderson W William James Henderson 1855 1937
Hessen Robert Hessen ?
Heyne Paul Heyne 1931 2000
Hicks Stephen R. C. Hicks ?
Higgins A A. Pearce Higgins 1865 1935
Higgs Henry Higgs 1864 1940
Higgs Robert Higgs ?
Hirshleifer Jack Hirshleifer 1925 2005
Hirst Francis W. Hirst 1873 1953
Hittinger R Russell Hittinger ?
Hobson John A. Hobson 1858 1940
Hofmann E Etienne Hofmann ?
Holdsworth W Sir William Searle Holdsworth 1871 1944
Hollander Jacob Jacob Harry Hollander 1871 1940
Hollander Samuel Samuel Hollander 1937 ?
Holt J James Clarke Holt ?
Hooper Charles L. Hooper ?
Hoover Kevin D. Hoover ?
Hospers John Hospers 1918 ?
Hufbauer Gary Clyde Hufbauer ?
Hume R Robert Ernest Hume 1877 1948
Hunter Ian Hunter 1949 ?
Huszar George B. de Huszar ?
Hymans Saul H. Hymans ?
Hyneman C Charles S. Hyneman ? 1984
Irwin Douglas A. Irwin ?
Ittersum M Martine Julia van Ittersum 1968
Jackson G Gordon Jackson 1923 1990
Jaffa Harry Jaffa ? ?
Jasay Anthony de Jasay 1925
Jastrow M Morris Jastrow 1861 1921
Jehn Christopher Jehn ?
Jennings W William Jennings 1847 1927
Johnston G George Alexander Johnston 1888
Jones Jeffrey M. Jones ?
Jones Steven L. Jones ?
Jones P Peter Jones ?
Jr. Robert W. Poole Jr. ?
Kahane J J. Kahane 1887 1939
Kapadia Shapurji Aspaniarji Kapadia 1857 ?
Kapossy B Béla Kapossy 1965
Kasper Wolfgang Kasper ?
Kaufman George G. Kaufman ?
Kaye Frederick Benjamin Kaye 1892 1930
Keller Albert Galloway Keller 1874 1956
Kemp A Arthur Kemp ?
Kennedy Thomas D. Kennedy 1955 ?
Keynes John Maynard Keynes 1883 1946
Kilcullen John Kilcullen ?
Kinzer Bruce L. Kinzer 1948
Kirzner Israel M. Kirzner 1930
Klein Benjamin Klein ?
Klein Daniel B. Klein ?
Kliemt Hartmut Kliemt 1949
Kling Arnold Kling ?
Knight Frank H. Knight 1885 1972
Knollenberg B Bernhard Knollenberg 1892 1973
Korkman P Petter Korkman ?
Koslowski P Peter Koslowski ?
Kotlikoff Laurence J. Kotlikoff ?
Kramnick Isaac Kramnick 1938 ?
Kroszner Randall S. Kroszner ?
Kukathas Chandran Kukathas ?
Kurz H Harry Kurz 1889
Lachmann Ludwig M. Lachmann 1906 1990
LaHaye Laura LaHaye ?
Lal Deepak Lal ?
Lane Michael Lane ?
Langfeldt M Margarethe Langfeldt ?
Latta R. Latta ?
Laurence Reginald Vere Laurence 1876 1934
Lawson Robert A. Lawson ?
Lazear E Edward Lazear ?
Le Mahieu D.L. Le Mahieu ?
Lee Dwight R. Lee ?
Lee Ronald Demos Lee ?
Lee Sidney Sir Sidney Lee 1859 1926
Leidhold Wolfgang Leidhold 1950 ?
Lence Ross M. Lence ?
Leoni Bruno Leoni 1913 1967
Leroux R Robert Leroux ?
Leube K Kurt Leube ?
Levy Frank Levy ?
Lieberman D David Lieberman 1953
Liebowitz Stan Liebowitz ?
Liggio L Leonard P. Liggio 1931
Lindley Dwight N. Lindley ?
Lindsay A Alexander Dunlop Lindsay 1879 1952
Litan Robert Litan ?
Livingston D Donald Livingston ?
Long R Roderick T. Long ?
Lukacs John Lukacs 1924 ?
Lutz Donald S. Lutz ?
MacCallum H Hugh MacCallum ?
Macey Jonathan R. Macey ?
Macfie Alec Lawrence Macfie 1898 1980
Machan Tibor R. Machan 1939
Mack Eric Mack ?
Mackenna S Stephen Mackenna 1872 1934
MaCurdy Thomas MaCurdy ?
Magoffin R Ralph van Deman Magoffin 1874 1942
Mair Alexander William Mair 1875 1928
Malcom Joyce Lee Malcom ?
Malden Henry Elliot Malden ?
Malkiel Burton G. Malkiel ?
Mankiw N. Gregory Mankiw ?
Manne H Henry Manne ?
Marina William Marina ? ?
Maude F Colonel Frederic Natusch Maude 1854 1933
McCallum Bennett T. McCallum ?
McChesney Fred McChesney ?
McClellan James McClellan 1937 2005
McCracken Paul W. McCracken 1915 ?
McDonald Forrest McDonald ?
McDowell Gary L. McDowell ? ?
McElroy Wendy McElroy ? ?
McIlwain C Charles Howard McIlwain 1871 1968
McInerny Ralph McInerny ? ?
McKechnie William Sharp McKechnie ?
McMillan Henry McMillan ?
McNeal E Edgar Holmes McNeal 1874 1955
McRae R.F. McRae ?
Meek Ronald L. Meek ?
Melese François Melese ?
Michaels Robert J. Michaels ?
Michener R Roger Michener ?
Miller F. Thornton Miller ?
Miller E Eugene F. Miller 1939
Millman Gregory J. Millman ?
Milyo Jeffrey Milyo ?
Minarik Joseph J. Minarik ?
Mineka Francis E. Mineka 1907
Minogue Kenneth Minogue 1930 ?
Mises Ludwig Ludwig von Mises 1881 1973
Moir Martin Martin Moir ?
Moir Zawahir Zawahir Moir ?
Montaner C Carlos Alberto Montaner ?
Moore Terrence O. Moore 1967 ?
Moore Stephen Moore ?
Moore Thomas Gale Moore ?
Moore J James Moore ?
Moran Mary Catherine Moran ? ?
Morrisey Michael A. Morrisey ?
Moss Lawrence S. Moss 1944
Mossner Ernest Campbell Mossner 1907
Mullainathan Sendhil Mullainathan ?
Murchison W William Murchison ?
Murphy Andrew R. Murphy 1967 ?
Murphy A Andrew R. Murphy 1967
Nalebuff Barry Nalebuff ?
Nardinelli Clark Nardinelli ?
Netter Jeffry M. Netter ?
Nisbet Robert A. Nisbet 1913 1996
Nolla E Eduardo Nolla ?
Norton Rob Norton ?
Novak M Michael Novak ?
Nye John V. C. Nye ?
O Súilleabháin Micheál Ó Súilleabháin ?
O’Brien P Patrick O’Brien 1932
Oakeshott Michael Oakeshott 1901 1990
Oegg Barbara Oegg ?
Oldfather W William Abbott Oldfather 1880 1945
OLL Editor OLL Editor ?
Oppenheimer Franz Oppenheimer 1864 1943
Orchard Rev. William Edwin Orchard 1877 1955
Ott Mack Ott ?
O’Driscoll Gerald P. O’Driscoll ?
O’Keeffe Dennis O’Keeffe ?
Parkin Jon Parkin ? ?
Passmore John Passmore ? ?
Paul Ellen Ellen Frankel Paul ? ?
Paul Jeffrey Jeffrey Paul ?
Paul-Dejean J Jean-Claude Paul-Dejean ?
Phillips M Mark Salber Phillips ?
Pierson G George W. Pierson 1904
Pigou Arthur Cecil Pigou 1877 1959
Pippin R Robert Pippin ?
Plucknett T Theodore Frank Thomas Plucknett 1897 1965
Pogson Smith William George Pogson Smith ? ?
Pollard A Arthur Pollard 1922 2001
Pope R R. Martin Pope ?
Portney Paul R. Portney ?
Posner R Richard A. Posner ?
Poulsen Annette Poulsen ?
Pound Roscoe Pound 1870 1964
Powell Benjamin Powell ?
Presser S Stephen B. Presser ?
Priestley F F.E.L. Priestley 1905
Prychitko David Prychitko ?
Raico R Ralph Raico ?
Raphael David Daiches Raphael 1916
Read Leonard Leonard E. Read 1898 1983
Reid Charles Charles J. Reid, Jr. ?
Reid J John Phillip Reid ?
Reinhardt A Aurelia Henry Reinhardt 1877 1948
Reynolds Alan Reynolds ?
Reynolds Morgan O. Reynolds ?
Rhoads Steven E. Rhoads ?
Richman S Sheldon L. Richman ?
Ritchie Daniel E. Ritchie ? ?
Robbins Caroline Caroline Robbins 1903 1999
Robbins Lionel Lionel Robbins 1898 1984
Roberts Russell Roberts ?
Robertson John John Mackinnon Robertson 1856 1933
Robinson C Colin Robinson ?
Robinson P Father Paschal Robinson 1870 1948
Robson Ann Ann P. Robson 1931
Robson John John M. Robson 1927
Rockoff Hugh Rockoff ?
Rogge Benjamin A. Rogge 1920 1980
Romer Christina D. Romer ?
Romer Paul M. Romer ?
Rommen Heinrich Rommen 1897 1967
Rosen S Sherwin Rosen ? 2001
Ross Ian Simpson Ross ?
Rothbard M Murray N. Rothbard 1926 1995
Rowley C Charles K. Rowley ?
Rubin Paul H. Rubin ?
Russell Dean Russell ?
Ryan Alan Ryan ?
Ryder A Arthur W. Ryder 1877 1938
Salemi Michael K. Salemi ?
Salin P Pascal Salin ?
Salvio A Alfonso de Salvio 1873
Sandefur Timothy Sandefur ?
Sandoz Ellis Sandoz 1931 ?
Sargent Thomas J. Sargent ?
Saunders D David Saunders ?
Sautet F Frédéric Sautet ?
Saving Thomas R. Saving ?
Sawhill Isabel V. Sawhill ?
Schaff D David S. Schaff 1852 1941
Schatz Albert Schatz 1879
Schleifer James T. Schleifer 1942 ?
Schröder P Peter Schröder ?
Schwartz Anna J. Schwartz ?
Scoble A Andrew R. Scoble ?
Scott J James Brown Scott 1866 1943
Scott W William Amasa Scott 1862 1944
Scudder Vida Dutton Scudder 1861 1954
Scully Gerald W. Scully ?
Seater John J. Seater ?
Sedgefield W Walter John Sedgefield 1866 1945
Seidler M Michael J. Seidler 1950
Selby-Bigge Lewis Amherst Selby-Bigge 1860 1951
Seldon Arthur Seldon 1916 2005
Selgin G George A. Selgin 1957
Shaw Jane S. Shaw ?
Sheehan B Bernard W. Sheehan ?
Sheehan C Colleen A. Sheehan ?
Shepherd Steve Shepherd 1963 ?
Shughart W William F. Shughart II ?
Siegel Jeremy J. Siegel ?
Silverthorne Michael Silverthorne ?
Sirc Ljubo Sirc ?
Skinner Andrew S. Skinner 1935
Small Kenneth A. Small ?
Smiley Gene Smiley ?
Smith Clifford W. Smith ?
Smith Fred L. Smith ?
Smith D Dale R. Smith ?
Smith G George H. Smith ?
Smith Mary Mary Campbell Smith ?
Smith Vera Vera C. Smith 1912 1976
Sobel Russell S. Sobel ?
Soothill William Edward Soothill 1861 1935
Spadaro Louis M. Spadaro 1913
Sparshott Francis Edward Sparshott 1926
Sraffa Piero Sraffa 1898 1983
Starbuck Dane Starbuck 1956 ?
Steimetz Seiji S. C. Steimetz ?
Stein Peter G. Stein 1926
Stein Herbert Stein 1916 1999
Stigler George J. Stigler 1911 1991
Stiglitz Joseph E. Stiglitz ?
Stillinger Jack Stillinger ?
Strawley James Herbert Strawley 1868 1954
Stringham Edward Stringham ?
Stroup Richard Stroup ? ?
Summers Lawrence H. Summers ?
Sumner Daniel A. Sumner ?
Taussig Frank William Taussig 1859 1940
Taylor Jerry Taylor ?
Terry C Charles Sanford Terry 1864 1936
Thaler Richard H. Thaler ?
Thirlby G.F. Thirlby ?
Thompson Rev. T. Thompson ? 1917
Thompson C C. Bradley Thompson ?
Thurow Lester C. Thurow ?
Timberlake Richard H. Timberlake ?
Tobin James Tobin 1918 2002
Todd William B. Todd ? ?
Todd W William B. Todd ?
Tollison Robert D. Tollison ?
Tonsor Stephen J. Tonsor 1923
Trevor-Roper Hugh Trevor-Roper 1914 ?
Tuck Richard Tuck 1949
Tullock Gordon Tullock 1922
Tupy Marian L. Tupy ?
Turco L Luigi Turco ?
van den Haag Ernest van den Haag ?
VandeWetering R Richard VandeWetering ?
Vaughn Karen Karen I. Vaughn ? ?
Veatch Henry B. Veatch 1911 1999
Velasco Gustavo R. Velasco 1903
Vernier B Richard B. Vernier ?
Vickery A Alice Drysdale Vickery ?
Vile M.J.C. Vile ?
Viner Jacob Viner 1892 1970
Viscusi W. Kip Viscusi ?
Wagner R Richard E. Wagner ?
Wallin J Jeffrey Wallin ?
Walters Sir Alan Walters 1926
Warner Stuart Stuart D. Warner 1955
Waterman A Anthony Michael C. Waterman ?
Way A Arthur S. Way 1847 1930
Weil David N. Weil ?
West Thomas Thomas G. West 1945
Westergaard Harald Westergaard 1853 1936
Weston C Corinne Comstock Weston ?
Weston W William Weston ?
Whatmore R Richard Whatmore ?
White L Lawrence H. White ?
Wicksteed Philip H. Wicksteed 1844 1927
Widgery A Alban G. Widgery 1887
Widmer Kinglsey Widmer 1925 ?
Wightman William P.D. Wightman ?
Wildavsky Aaron Wildavsky 1930 1993
Wildavsky Adam Wildavsky ?
Williams Walter Walter E. Williams 1936
Wilson C Clyde N. Wilson ?
Winch Donald Winch 1935
Womersely David Womersely ?
Woodhouse A Arthur Sutherland Pigott Woodhouse 1895 1964
Worden B Blair Worden ?
Workman H Herbert B. Workman 1862
Yago Glenn Yago ?
Yeager Leland B. Yeager ?
Yellin Mark E. Yellin ? ?
Zane John Maxcy Zane 1863 1937
Zeckhauser Richard Zeckhauser ?
Zohn H Harry Zohn ?
Zurbuchen Simone Zurbuchen ?
Zycher Benjamin Zycher ?
Zywicki Todd J. Zywicki ?